The knee is a particularly important hinge joint that connects our thigh to our lower leg. The bend available at the knee joint allows us to clear our foot and toes from the ground when we are walking and in conjunction with the hip and ankle, flex and extend at complimentary angles for best motion.
Injury to the knee can be debilitating due to it being a weight baring joint required for all upright locomotion.
Patellofemoral joint pain (PFJ) tends to cause significant pain particularly with deep knee flexion positions and walking down stairs and down hill.
Traumatic knee injuries caused by impact, twist and turn mechanisms while working or playing sport include ligament and cartilage injuries. Sports such as football, netball, rugby, lacrosse and hockey are sports that tends to have a high incidence of ACL and other ligament injuries. Cartilage can also be impacted through excessive use and awkward positions under load.
Total knee replacement is the end result if knee osteoarthritis is so significant that discomfort when weight bearing is close to constant. Arthritic changes are graded 1-4 with 1 being minimal and 4 being full loss of chondral surface cartilage.